A question I frequently get is about probiotics and how to protect these possibly beneficial bugs from the very harsh stomach acid. There is more to this question than meets the eye, so let’s look at several parts of the probiotic picture. First, probiotics are bacteria, present in yogurt, other dairy products and pills. The hope is that these probiotics will establish a presence in the lower gut and render beneficial health effects.
Probiotics Are Live Organisms
As such they can live or die under a variety of circumstances. One such circumstance is time. Some bacteria make spores which can live for many years and then blossom and grow. Most probiotics do not make spores, so they gradually die off if they do not find a comfortable place to grow, meaning a moist, warm, friendly environment like the colon. However, when a probiotic sits on a shelf in a store, the bugs gradually die. The longer they are in a warehouse or on a store shelf the fewer live bacteria will be present. Refrigeration likely prolongs the life of probiotics but we don’t know for which ones and for how long. Most manufacturers will not tell you.
We also don’t know which ones our bodies need. A good bacterial strain for one person may not be as effective for another. When you consume probiotics, you’re hoping the bacteria you consume is the bacteria your unique gut needs.
Yogurt and Probiotics
You can be sure that yogurt and other such dairy products have fresh, live bacteria in them. Plus, it is refrigerated. These are two good things. However, we do not know how many bacteria are in a serving and manufacturers do not put this on the labels. You could be getting a very small dose which would not be enough to make a difference. Additionally, many of these bacteria will be killed by stomach acid, especially when eaten with food.
Aside from not knowing the amount of good bacteria you’re consuming, the other downside of yogurt is the sugar content. Typically, yogurt contains a large amount of sugar. If not sugar, the manufacturer will replace it with a manufactured sweetener. These sweeteners have been shown to cause gastrointestinal issues, which are the issues many individuals try to alleviate by consuming probiotics in the first place.
Probiotics and Stomach Acid
Here is the tricky part of the probiotic puzzle. Stomach acid is very, very strong. It does and will kill the majority of bacteria that get into the stomach each day. So, how do you protect the probiotic bacteria you take from this “bacteria execution chamber” which everyone has inside them? Here are some things you can do. First, take the probiotic on an empty stomach. When the stomach is empty, it is not making much acid. You can open a capsule and mix it with a small amount of water. The stomach will empty out liquid in 15-20 minutes, but will keep food in it for 60-90 minutes. During this time it grinds the food up and mixes it with acid and harsh enzymes which are designed to get the food ready for absorption in the small intestine. Another trick you can do is to mix the probiotic with some bicarbonate of soda, a strong alkaline powder. This will neutralize the stomach acid temporarily until the probitoic can get through the stomach.
Coating a Probiotic
Some manufacturers will enteric coat capsules. Enteric coating is a polymer barrier on oral supplements. This helps protect supplements from the ph (i.e. acidity) of the stomach. Another substance is called alginate which coats and protects the bacteria until it gets into the small intestine where it is safe. Again, we don’t really know how well this works. It sounds like it should. You have to check with the manufacturer to know if this is part of their production technique.
So here are the summary points:
- Use a refrigerated probiotic which has just come onto the store shelf. The longer into the future is the expiration date, the more live probiotics are likely to be in the capsule.
- Take a probiotic on an empty stomach with 4-6 oz of water. Even better, twist or cut the capsule and empty the powdered bacteria into a glass, add the water and a teaspoon of soda bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid.
- Yogurt is great and most people get a good feeling that they are doing something good for their gut. We don’t know how much, but the advertisers tell us we will almost live forever if we eat their product. Consider the amount of sweeteners in the yogurt product. If you’re trying to manage your blood sugar, yogurt may not be the right option for you.
- There are some probiotics that are helpful for certain gastrointestinal diseases. Your physician is the person to help you make the right choice.
Prebiotics and Probiotics
No discussion of probiotics would be complete without mentioning prebiotics. A prebiotic is not a probiotic. A prebiotic is a specialized plant fiber that easily gets through the stomach unchanged and the feeds the good colon bacteria which everyone already has in their colon. That’s right. We have over a 1000 species of bacteria in the colon and many of these are the good gals and guys. Feeding them good prebiotic plant fiber is the key to creating a rich furnace of potent good bacteria. When the body has a good balance of bacteria in the gut, it experiences many important benefits, from easier weight management and improved immune system to better mental health and resistance to stress.
When you consume prebiotics, you can be sure that you’re reaping all the benefits that come with them since they aren’t destroyed in the body. You can also be sure that what you’re introducing is beneficial. Unlike yogurt that contains good bacteria that may not be helpful to your unique gut, prebiotics fertilizes the good bacteria you already have in there.
Learn more about the differences between prebiotics and probiotics.